A major concern for women, wrinkles are one of the signs of ageing. Understanding the different processes involved in their appearance helps to better target the most suitable anti-ageing and anti-wrinkle creams.
Wrinkles: a biological indication of skin ageing
As it ages, the skin changes, it loses its natural hydration and its fundamental substance degenerates. Due to a lack of hydration and nutrients, collagen production decreases. This support tissue of the skin weakens, losing tone and firmness. Cohesion between the dermis and the epidermis becomes less strong. Depressions form on the skin’s surface: these are wrinkles. Wrinkles are one of the first visible signs of the skin’s ageing, and mainly occur on the face. There are two categories:
- Expression lines located on the forehead and between the eyebrows, at the nasolabial folds and the corners of the mouth.
- Weakening folds linked to sagging of the skin, loss of skin tone and firmness. These are responsible for altering face shape, creating bags under the eyes, jowls and a double chin.
The mechanisms that produce wrinkles
Three mechanisms produce wrinkles:
- The action of the muscles: the skin is constantly worked by the movements of the underlying muscles. These micro-contractions promote the formation of lines between which the skin becomes taut, stretches and finally creases.
- Modification of the dermal constituents: intrinsic and photoinduced ageing lead to a flattening of the junction between the dermis and the epidermis.
- Modification of the skin’s relief: with age, the lines that tauten the skin distend and slowly hollow out. This phenomenon speeds up after the age of 60.
Specific active ingredients to treat wrinkles
While wrinkles can never be made to completely disappear, cosmetics can be used to repress certain mechanisms and prevent others.The main active ingredients used in anti-ageing and anti-wrinkle products are antioxidants, pro-collagen substances (vitamin C, etc.), moisturising agents that lock in water (hyaluronic acid, etc.), and depigmenting agents.